Monday, March 9, 2009

ESTONIA - Tartu / Ruins of Toome Cathedral

The name of Tartu’s “Toome Hill” is derived from the “Toomkirik” or Toom Cathedral of the area’s bishopric. For that time the cathedral was truly massive, being the largest religious building in all of the Liivimaa territory. Building of the cathedral began in the 13th century and was completed in 15th century as a triple-aisled basilica. In the course of the Reformation and Livonian War the church was damaged. The fire of 1624 completed the destruction. In 1807 the university library was built into the choral room of the church, which was housed there until 1982. Now the Tartu University History Museum is located there, and observing platforms have been renovated in the tower ruins.
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ESTONIA - Tartu / Observatory. Old Anathomic Theatre. Botanic Garden of the University of Tartu

Tartu Observatory is on the UNESCO WHL as the part on Struve Geodetic Arc. The Struve Arc is a chain of survey triangulations stretching from Hammerfest in Norway to the Black Sea, through 10 countries and over 2,820 km. These are points of a survey, carried out between 1816 and 1855 by the astronomer Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve, which represented the first accurate measuring of a long segment of a meridian. This helped to establish the exact size and shape of the planet and marked an important step in the development of earth sciences and topographic mapping. It is an extraordinary example of scientific collaboration among scientists from different countries, and of collaboration between monarchs for a scientific cause. The original arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 main station points. The listed site includes 34 of the original station points, with different markings, i.e. a drilled hole in rock, iron cross, cairns, or built obelisks.
Old Anatomical theatre was one of the first buildings of the re-opened Tartu University which was built in 1803-1805 according to the drawings of university architect J. Krause. The first part to be built was a low-domed rotunda in the classical style. Narrow, tall windows with balusters at their base and smaller mezzanine windows at the top add life to the rotunda. The Old Anatomical Theatre occupies a position of considerable importance in the history of Estonian medicine, having served the UT Faculty of Medicine since 1803. Visitors are offered an exhibition of the history of medicine, displaying among other things the historical collections of the Faculty.
The Botanical Garden of the University of Tartu was founded in 1803, near what is now the Vanemuine Old Theatre House. In 1806 the garden was relocated to more suitable site, on the ruins of the ancient city wall and fortifications near the river and ponds. The first director of the garden was Prof. Gottfried Albrecht Germann and the first chief gardener in duty was Johann Anton Weinmann. The first master plan of the Garden was made by Weinmann and it serves till nowadays. In 1811 Prof. Carl Friedrich Ledebour was nominated the director. Under his active leadership, the collections of the Garden were enriched by many new species, collected from Siberia and other unexplored regions of the Russian Empire, and firstly described by Ledebour. Most of them reached Western Europe via our Garden. Many other famous botanists as Trautvetter, Maximovicz, Bunge, Russow, Kuznetsov, Lippmaa have contributed to the development of this marvelous Garden. The Garden contains several monuments gratefully reviving the memory of our forerunners contribution.
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ESTONIA - Tartu / Peetri Church (St. Peter's Lutheran Church)

The year of birth of St. Peter's congregations is 1869. St. Peter's Church was consecrated in 1884. This pseudogothic imposing building was built pursuant to a design by E. Schröder. The location was symbolic of the time of the Estonian awakening: in the proximity of the square where the first general Estonian song festival took place. The church was finally completed in 1903, when the freshly finished 55- metre chief tower and four corner towers were consecrated. A 22- register organ and the altar painting, "Dying Christ" (by J. Köler), were finished in the 1890's. Both church bells have been cast in Gatsina near St. Petersburg.
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ESTONIA - Sangaste Castle

The Castle was designed by architect Otto Pius Hippius in 1874. It almost exactly replicated the famous Windsor Castle in English architecture.
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ESTONIA - Otepää Town Hall and ski-tracks

Otepää is a town in Valga County, Estonia with a population of about 2000. Administratively it is a part of Otepää Rural Municipality. Otepää is a popular skiing resort, popularly known as the "winter capital" of Estonia (in contrast to the "summer capital" Pärnu). It is the site of an annual Cross-country skiing World Cup event.
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